政策动向

【政策动向】2019国防授权法案第1261条_战略

发布时间:2019年04月23日         来源:国际金融与经济研究中心CIFER         点击次数: 次         【打印
1261 美国对中国的战略
 
速读:
《法案》第1261条要求总统应该在2019年3月1日之前向相关的国会委员会提交一份包含针对中国的政府综合战略的报告,具体包括战略评估和计划应对措施,跨部门协调和实施战略机制等内容。

以下为第1261条法令原文:
(a)政策声明-国会宣布,与中方的长期战略竞争是美国的首要任务,美国需要整合国力的多个方面,包括外交、经济、情报、执法和军事力量,以保护和加强国家安全。
 
(b)战略要求-
  (1) 总体上-在2019年3月1日之前,总统应该向相关的国会委员会提交一份包含针对中华人民共和国的政府综合战略的报告。
  (2) 战略内容-第(1)段中的战略应该包括以下:
    (A)对中国共产党开展以下活动的战略评估和计划应对措施:
       (i)利用政治影响力、信息战、审查和宣传来破坏民主体制和进程,以及演说、言论表达、出版和学术思想的自由。
       (ii) 使用情报网络来获取公开的研发成果。
       (iii) 使用经济手段,包括市场准入和投资,以进入美国敏感的行业。
       (iv) 恶意网络活动。
       (v) 在非洲、欧洲、中亚、南美洲和印度洋-太平洋地区,以及北极丝绸之路上开展投资、基础设施和发展项目,如中国的“一带一路”倡议,以进入该地区和增加影响力。
       (vi) 除了传统的武装冲突外,使用军事行动、武器和防御设施以及混合作战方法来对抗美国或其盟国与伙伴国。
    (B)加强战略沟通以抵消中国影响与促进美国利益的现有或计划的方法。
    (C)一份对实施战略所需的关键外交、发展、情报、军事和经济资源的指明。
    (D)一项最大限度地协调和有效利用这些资源以应对(A)项所述活动所构成的威胁的计划。
    (E) 现有或计划的跨部门协调和实施战略机制。
  (3)形式-第(1)段要求的报告应以非保密形式提交,但可包括保密附件。
  (4)年度预算的提交-主席应确保依据《美国法典》第31篇第1105条来提交给国会的年度预算中,明确强调了与第(1)段所要求的战略有关的拟议资助的计划和项目。
  (5)相关的国会委员会-在本节中,“相关的国会委员会”一词是指-
    (A) 参议院的军事委员会,外交关系委员会,情报专责委员会,财政委员会,国土安全与政府事务委员会,司法委员会,商务、科学与交通委员会,预算委员会;以及
    (B)众议院的军事委员会,外交事务委员会,情报常设委员会,金融服务委员会,国土安全委员会,司法委员会,能源与商务委员会,以及预算委员会。
 
 
 
 
SEC. 1261. UNITED STATES STRATEGY ON CHINA
 
(a) STATEMENT OF POLICY.—Congress declares that long-term strategic competition with China is a principal priority for the United States that requires the integration of multiple elements of national power, including diplomatic, economic, intelligence, law enforcement, and military elements, to protect and strengthen national security.
 
(b) STRATEGY REQUIRED.—
  (1) IN GENERAL.—Not later than March 1, 2019, the President shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report containing a whole-of-government strategy with respect to the People’s Republic of China.
  (2) ELEMENTS OF STRATEGY.—The strategy required by paragraph (1) shall include the following:
 
  (A)Strategic assessments of and planned responses to address the following activities by the Chinese Communist Party:
    (i) The use of political influence, information operations, censorship, and propaganda to undermine democratic institutions and processes, and the freedoms of speech, expression, press, and academic thought.
    (ii) The use of intelligence networks to exploit open research and development.
    (iii) The use of economic tools, including market access and investment to gain access to sensitive United States industries.
    (iv) Malicious cyber activities.
    (v) The use of investment, infrastructure, and development projects, such as China’s Belt and Road Initiative, in Africa, Europe, Central Asia, South America, and the Indo-Pacific region, and the Polar Silk Road in the Arctic, as a means to gain access and influence.
    (vi) The use of military activities, capabilities, and defense installations, and hybrid warfare methods, short of traditional armed conflict, against the United States or its allies and partners.
  (B) Available or planned methods to enhance strategic communication to counter Chinese influence and promote United States interests.
  (C) An identification of the key diplomatic, development, intelligence, military, and economic resources necessary to implement the strategy.
  (D) A plan to maximize the coordination and effectiveness of such resources to counter the threats posed by the activities described in subparagraph (A).
  (E) Available or planned interagency mechanisms for the coordination and implementation of the strategy.
(3) FORM.—The report required by paragraph (1) shall be submitted in unclassified form, but may include a classified annex.
(4) ANNUAL BUDGET SUBMISSION.—The President shall ensure that the annual budget submitted to Congress pursuant to section 1105 of title 31, United States Code, clearly highlights the programs and projects proposed to be funded that relate to the strategy required by paragraph (1).
(5) APPROPRIATE CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEES.—In this section, the term ‘‘appropriage congressional committees’’ means—
  (A) the Committee on Armed Services, the Committee on Foreign Relations, the Select Committee on Intelligence, the Committee on Finance, the Committee on Homeland
Security and Governmental Affairs, the Committee on the Judiciary, the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, and the Committee on the Budget of the
Senate; and
  (B) the Committee on Armed Services, the Committee on Foreign Affairs, the Permanent Select Committee on  Intelligence, the Committee on Financial Services, the Committee
on Homeland Security, the Committee on the Judiciary, the Committee on Energy and Commerce, and the Committee on the Budget of the House of Representatives.

《国防授权法案2019》原文: 
http://cifer.pbcsf.tsinghua.edu.cn/uploadfile/2019/0422/20190422045924391.pdf